The anthelminthic drug is used to treat parasitic worm infections, and these drugs can kill parasitic worms by interfering with their metabolism. Researchers have now found that these drugs can also kill cancer cells, including those from breast and lung cancers.
The researchers believe that their findings could benefit future research in cancer therapy, and they hope to develop a new class of anti-cancer drugs based on the existing anthelmintics. This article will discuss different types of cancer diseases and the types cured by fenbendazole.
Types of Cancer disease
Cancer is a generic term for a group of diseases characterized by the rapid growth and spread of abnormal cells. Cancer cells can invade nearby tissues and metastasize to distant organs, thereby posing a threat to human health. The hallmarks of cancer are uncontrolled cell growth and division, invasion and migration capabilities, and the ability to induce angiogenesis. The development and progression of cancers are due to multiple factors, including genetic abnormalities, environmental insults, non-genetic metabolic alterations, immune responses, and other factors not yet fully understood. The following are the common cancer diseases:
Carcinoma is a malignant tumor that originates from epithelial tissue. Carcinoma, like all cancers, is caused by cells that grow and divide without any control. Source A carcinoma can develop in almost any cell type; however, it is most common for cancer to begin in the cells that line organs and other structures within the body. Carcinomas may form in many different areas of the body. These include the lungs (pulmonary carcinoma), colon (colorectal carcinoma), pancreas (pancreatic carcinoma), breast (breast carcinoma), kidney (renal cell carcinoma), cervix (cervical carcinoma), and endometrium (uterine corpus cancer), and bladder (transitional cell carcinoma). The most common type of cancer worldwide is lung cancer which accounts for a more significant percentage of all new cases annually.
Leukemia is a type of cancer that starts in blood-forming tissue such as bone marrow and causes high numbers of abnormal white blood cells to be produced within the bloodstream. These abnormal white blood cells do not function properly, leading to an increased risk of infection and bleeding problems due to low levels of normal white blood cells.
Sarcomas are cancers that develop from cells that make up connective tissues in the body. Connective tissues are a type of tissue that provides support for many different parts of the body. Source Sarcomas can occur almost anywhere in the body. They often develop in bones and cartilage, but they can also develop in the muscles, fat, blood vessels, tendons, and other tissues. Sarcomas form either solid tumors or malignant tumors with areas of dead tissue surrounded by living cancer cells (known as necrosis).
Lymphomas are cancers that begin in lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell involved in immunity, and develop into malignant tumors. They most often occur in lymph nodes, small bean-shaped organs found throughout the body. Lymphomas can also develop within other organs such as the liver, spleen, and bone marrow.
Multiple myeloma is a cancer of plasma cells, a type of white blood cell. Plasma cells produce antibodies to fight infection. Typically, plasma cells live in the bone marrow and makeup about a smaller percentage of white blood cells. There are too many plasma cells in the bone marrow in multiple myeloma, or they grow out of control. This causes an overproduction of antibodies that can damage normal tissues and organs.
Melanoma is the most common type of skin cancer. It starts in melanocytes, the cells that make pigment (color) in the skin. Melanoma can also form in the eyes and internal organs. The disease begins when a change (mutation) occurs in a cell’s DNA, and this causes the cell to grow and divide quickly and form malignant tumors that invade surrounding tissues and possibly spread to other body parts.
Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors
Brain tumors are cancers of the brain or spinal cord that develop from the glial cells (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes) that support and protect nerve cells in the brain. The cause of most brain tumors is unknown, but researchers have identified some risk factors, including genetics and exposure to radiation or certain chemicals.
Other Types of Tumors
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. It begins in the breast cells and can spread throughout the body. Breast cancer can be stage 1 (early), stage 2 (intermediate), or stage 3 (advanced). Stage 4 breast cancer means spreading to other parts of the body. Prostate cancer begins when normal prostate tissue changes into abnormal tissue. Cancerous cells grow out of control and form a tumor in one or both lobes of the prostate gland. Prostate cancer may also spread to other parts of the body.
Researchers approved cells cured by fenbendazole
The researchers discovered that the drug effective against lung cancer H460 and A549, a non-small cell lung cancer type.
The researchers applied the fenbendazole solution to H460 cells, a cancer cell line that is highly resistant to anticancer drugs. Source The researchers found that the fenbendazole treatment caused a significant reduction in cell viability in all concentrations tested. The cells also showed signs of apoptosis and autophagy, both forms of programmed cell death.
In mouse studies, researchers found that fenbendazole could inhibit tumor growth and prolong survival time in mice with lung adenocarcinoma (lung cancer). Source These findings suggest that fenbendazole may be a promising drug for treating lung adenocarcinomas.
Adverse effects identified by the researchers as a result of the use of fenbendazole
The researchers identified adverse effects associated with the use of fenbendazole. The types of negative impacts identified by the researchers are as follows:
Salivation is a common side effect of fenbendazole, and it is more likely to occur in children than adults and can be reduced by taking the medication with food. If salivation is a problem for you, let your doctor know. The dose of fenbendazole may be increased to reduce the amount of salivation.
Fenbendazole can occasionally cause vomiting in some people, particularly children. If you experience nausea or vomiting while taking fenbendazole, stop taking it and consult with your doctor immediately. Your doctor might recommend adjusting your dosage or switching to another antiparasitic drug that doesn’t affect your digestive system (such as praziquantel).
Diarrhea is characterized by frequent bowel movements, some loose and watery, while others are hard and dry. It is one of the most common side effects associated with fenbendazole. It can cause diarrhea due to its ability to alter normal bowel movements by disrupting the body’s natural balance of bacteria in the gut.